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I have been sitting on this article for some time but posted it because I have been so busy with other work it may be sometime before I get back to this matter. It is NO coincidence that an article on a possible Allied invasion of Norway appears with the newly published insignia of a Canadian Parachute CORPS. Not Battalion but a CORPS. The link is indisputable. The Germans would put 2 and 2 together! Canada = Snow, Snow= NORWAY, Parachute troops trained in Snow = INVASION. Where - NORWAY. To imagine that the FSSF was not part of this deception is nuts. National Library of Canada, Reel N-24547, Winnipeg Free Press, Vol. 49, No. 101, 23 January 1943. P.1 Column 4.

It is also very interesting that one of those involved with these committee meetings is Lieutenant-Colonel John Bevan (Also spelt Bevin). He was the controlling officer of the London Controlling Section (LCS). This section was set up in September 1941 to plan and oversee highly secret worldwide strategic deception. The direct overseer of the LCS was Prime Minister and Defence Minister Winston Churchill. The only reason Bevan was involved with JUPITER and met with Canadian Brigadier G.G. Simonds was to oversee deception planning surrounding its preparation. Since the President of the United States and Churchill had already decided on 25 July to mount Operation TORCH (The invasion of Vichy French North Africa) instead of SLEDGEHAMMER (An assault on the French Coast) and JUPITER, Bevan was present to spin JUPITER (preparation and planning) as a deception to cover TORCH. This had already been decided between Roosevelt and Churchill on 27 July, " Secrecy can only be maintained by deception. For this purpose I am running 'JUPITER'..." (NOTE: Hinge of Fate, Churchill, pp 448-449, 27 July 1942) Since PLOUGH was a part of JUPITER planning, it was an obvious player in this shadowy game. While this is proven in my book by covering specific events from 1941 to 1943, I intend to add more information to this website. 

The Cardwell Committee was set up as a liaison between British and Canadian staff regarding the study behind the possibility of mounting an invasion of Norway (JUPITER). You will note that one of the first items covered on 15 July is the issue of the "snow tanks." Horn and Wyczynski claim that the term "snow tanks" could be referring to any tank and not necessarily the T-15, T-24, M-29 Weasel. In this case the reference to Brigadier Lushington discounts this claim. He was the man placed in charge of SNOW PLOUGH developments and planning at COHQ. The PLOUGH vehicle is constantly being referred to as a "snow tank" in documentation because it's original concept included the use of armour plate and caterpillar tracks . No other armoured vehicle at that time could be confused as a "snow tank". A study of all armoured vehicles under development at this time will be included in future.  NOTE: Directorate of History and Heritage, Diaries War, Cardwell Committees.

NOTE: LAC, Operation Jupiter Review 9 July to 7 August 1942 COS (42) 222 (O) War Cabinet, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Operation "JUPITER" Copy G-O-C in C First Canadian Army.MG30-E133, A.G.L. McNaughton, Vol. 135, file PA 1-7-1, JUPITER. This review is available in the Library and Archives Canada, the US National Archives as well as the National Archives in England.  

In Horn and Wyczynski's Annex B they state, "never was the Plough Project or the FSSF directly or indirectly implicated in Jupiter."  General McNaughton's Jupiter Review ( above and to right ) prove without a doubt that Plough was implicated, from the very first day, in Jupiter planning.


    In 2013 the book Of Courage and Determination, The First Special Service Force, "The Devil's Brigade," 1942-44 was published by Dundurn Press. The authors Colonel Bernd Horn and Michel Wyczynski claim that many of the conclusions in my book Snow Plough and the Jupiter Deception, The Story of the 1st Special Service Force and the 1st Canadian Special Service Battalion, 1942-1945 are false and that my conclusions are not based on facts. These conclusions confront several important issues regarding the history of the 1st Special Service Force and the 1st Canadian Special Service Battalion. One issue, the dismissal of Colonel Donald Dobie Williamson is dealt with in the section of this website titled History of the 1st Special Service Force Part II. It brings forward several facts regarding this case completely neglected by these authors. It also brings forward an argument on behalf of Colonel Williamson based on the first hand material available. First hand material I should add that was entirely available to the authors in question. 

There are three additional issues relating to the actual operational use of the Plough scheme as part of the proposed Jupiter operation and its use as a deception to cover Allied operations in North Africa and subsequent operations. 

Horn and Wyczynski claim that Plough was NEVER part of Jupiter planning and played NO role as part of any deception planning surrounding an attack on Norway.  This is found in their Annex B, The FSSF and Operation Jupiter: A Historical Clarification. They devoted an entire separate annex to counter the main premise of my book. An annex I will prove that has no factual base at all.

They also claim that the formation, training and operational deployment of Plough was entirely American and that the FSSF was part of the permanent order of battle of the US Army. They state that the British had NO control over the organization and that any interference from the British was strictly an annoyance that the Americans basically brushed off.

Further they claim that part of the original operational plan for Norway included a mission to sabotage heavy water production at the Vemork power station at the Rjukan waterfall in Telemark, Norway. 

While it is not impossible that part of Plough could have been used in such a manner, the FSSF was never earmarked for such an operation. Planning to destroy heavy water facilities at Vemork was already underway when the FSSF was still being formed.

In short, this page will be devoted to bringing forward the entire story which will be fortified with indisputable facts.

It will include information on the raising of winter and mountain warfare units in Britain, Canada and the United States. It will include their use as part of strategic deception and clarify who controlled the formation, training and operational deployment of the 1st Special Service Force. This page will be developed over time as research will be carried out at institutions in the US and Britain to add significantly to material already in possession of the webmaster. Click on red, white and blue button below to read article PART 1... 


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